Maddox Genealogy Book

Cornelius Maddox Ancestors and Descendants

Joyce Smelley Odom

Nichols-Smallwood-Maddox 1638 to 1930: Freeman-Phillips. Alternate name is “Cornelius Maddox Ancestors and Descendants.”  © 2006 by Joyce Smelley Odom
ISBN-13: 978-0-9788481-0-1, ISBN-10: 0-9788481-0-1

Researched for 55 years,  “Cornelius Maddox Ancestors and Descendants” contains 2500 Maddox descendants, 200 OTHER Maddox and over 1000 Surnames that span 1638 to 1930.  This 336 page hardbound edition contains details found in no other publication, printed original census pages, in-depth analysis to separate Maddox families, and documented corrections for “Hester Evans”, “Edward Maddox”, and “Frances Wheeler.” The cost is $50 per copy plus $5 shipping to any one address.

E-mail the author directly with questions, comments, or inquires about book purchase. Different topics of general interest will be added from time to time to demonstrate research techniques. 

Topics covered:

Hester Nichols NOT Evans has Proof – 11/7/2009
Our Nichols-Smallwood Heritage – 8/3/2008
Importance of Signature Marks and Cattle Marks – 8/3/2008
Maddox Census Neighborhoods – 7/11/2008
Document Cornelius Maddox descendants of MD to SC - 6/20/2008
Introduction to Joyce Odom - 6/20/2008

Hester Nichols NOT Evans has Proof
            Archives of Maryland Volume 41 pages 515-516 [MDv41p515-516]

            John Nichols versus John Nuthall can be found in Archives of Maryland Online

            Esther “Hester” is named by the court and called “my daughter” by John Nichols. A jury of 12 in the Lower Court who “find this Indenture illegal, deceitful, and void” sets Hester free.

            The Indenture has the distinct John Nichols mark and Hester Nichols her + mark. Archive editors show the John Nichols’ mark as overlapping Hs. His actual mark looks like a rope with a knot in the middle and knots on each end with the rope protruding from the ends.

            Nichols-Smallwood-Maddox 1638 to 1930 pages 3-46, 51-52

            Thomas Cornwallis, a previous Lt. Governor, in a self-righteous harangue petitioned to bring the case to the Court of Chancery on a claim of error. Cornwallis crudely disparaged the Nichols and the only witness who did support the Nichols.

            In the Provincial Council in 2 to 3, the Nichols case is lost and Hester must serve out her term.

            Mr. Secretary [Mr. Henry Sewall] and Mr. Jerome Whyte declared the Indenture insufficient because there was no consideration specified at the expiration of the said Hester’s time and because she was not brought before a magistrate as should have been done. The other 3 declared the Indenture valid. Counselor was Baker Brook [married Anne Calvert]; Chancellor was Phillip Calvert; Governor was Charles Calvert.

            Also, there was no term of service specified in the Indenture although Cornwallis discussed the disagreement about a term of 5 years or 7 years. The two Indenture witnesses were not called to testify the Nichols understood the words although the Nichols only signed by marks.

            William Evans died in 1646 leaving a widow Ann. As early as December 1646 John Nichols married the widow. At that time he was reimbursed out of the William Evans estate.

Our Nichols-Smallwood Heritage
            The wife of Col. James Smallwood was Esther "Hester" Nichols, daughter of John Nichols and his wife Ann, widow of William Evans. This relationship is documented in the highest courts, the best proof possible.

            John Nichols came into the country in 1638 "on board the Truelove" given in his own deposition and attested by his actual mark. The powerful and thrilling American struggle of the Nichols family takes 32 pages to tell.

           "Hester Nichols" NOT "Hester Evans" was the ancestress of the Smallwood family and thus the Cornelius Maddox family. Misunderstood: John Nichols gave a calf to John Evans, son of William Evans. The Nichols, the Evans, the signature mark of John Nichols, and the mark of the calf have been traced. More discoveries are probable!

Importance of Signature Marks
            Some devices used by court clerks were used to identify the lower class by misspelling the name or perhaps using small letters rather than caps. One ancestor - although literate with an uncommon surname - was identified as “thomas hussey” until he received money from his father and suddenly became “Thomas Hussey, Gentleman.”

           Original documents are rarely available due to loss and deterioration - the wills and estates retained by the court - the deeds, powers of attorney, and passports taken away. Double unlucky, some ledgers do not survive.

            The official records are in the handwriting of the clerk. But signature marks have the specific purpose to uniquely identify a person. The mark of a “John Smith” might be “J”, “S”, “JS” or an unusual mark. Therefore, signature marks document better than written signatures. These marks transcend different clerks and locations.

            Some court clerks such as in Sussex VA recorded signature marks as “x” and most abstractors do use “x.” Bk8, 13: Abstracted as “x” the actual mark of John Nichols was -•–-•--•- in the court ledger. This looked like a rope with knots on both end and in the middle. The “Maryland Archives” series of books indicated his mark as overlapping HH.

Importance of Cattle Marks
            The mark of a calf given by John Nichols in MD to John Evans, son of William Evans, was the very same mark of cattle given to the young John Nichols in VA. The registration of this exact cattle mark was not found. Bk16: 1665 Major William Andrews and his children in VA used multiple versions of this cattle mark but not this exact one.

Maddox Census Neighborhoods
            An alphabetic census is not friendly. 1790 Charles MD by surname letter and 1820 Laurens SC by given name letter do not reveal neighbors. All censuses pose these questions: Where did the census taker start the day? Make a day’s loop or board overnight? Take a boat? Stop at a boundary? The Maddox family lived in the four-county area.

            A census offers but does not deny facts. Distant 1800 Maddox neighbors are reflected in 1810 with the same or a different Maddox. A fortunate census sequence would be recorded in a single day loop. Luckily, Benjamin Maddox portions of 1790 and 1810 become alive!

Sequence of Maddox of 1790 MD to 1790 SC

Bk199 Original: 1790/1792 Abbeville SC Census in Saluda River sequence
-03 Herod Freeman = future father-in-law of Catherine N. Maddox of Henley.
** Benjamin Maddix = Benjamin II.
** Walter Maddix alone = son of Benjamin II.
** Ignatius Posey alone = Henley’s stepchild.
+04 Thomas Donaldson = future father-in-law of Benjamin III.

1795 Herod Freeman, William Davis, and Reuben Nash inventoried the estate of Mark Ball. 1806 Herod Freeman was granted 626 acres on Robertson’s Creek and moved. But, William Davis [+04] and Reuben Nash [+09] lived near the 1810 tight Maddox group.

Bk104 Original: 1810 Abbeville SC Census on Saluda River branches
Preceding the Maddox group were interacting neighbors:
-12 Henry Gains was now over 55. 1800 was over 45 near Benjamin III.
-09 Adam C Jones (-1816) Jr. surveyed 1803 for Henley & 1804 (LAUR now) for William.
-06 William Ware 1800 lived next to Henley on distant page. 1818 surveyed near John’s land.
-04 Edmond Ware list: 1803 Henley Maddox & Benjamin Posey; 1812 Benjamin Maddox.
-01 Susannah Gains was age 26-44.

Sequence of strong circumstantial proofs
**Benjamin Posey = son of Mary (Maddox)//brother-in-law of Janet//nephew of Benjamin II.
**Jane Maddox = widow of Henley.
---John Morrison was at estates of 1810 John and 1815 Janet.
---Jerry Maxwell
**Elizabeth Matox = widow of John.
**Benjamin Matox Sr. = Benjamin II.
---Joseph Rutlidge 1818 grant listed John Maddox land & Davis, Donaldson, Norwood, Ware.
**Thomas Norwood (1758-) Revo; Wyatt Norwood married into Freeman-Maddox family.
**William Donaldson = brother-in-law of Benjamin III.
**Thomas Donaldson (-1811) = father-in-law of Benjamin III.
**William Matox = son of Benjamin II.

         Following the Maddox group were interacting neighbors:
+02 Henry Johnson 1816 inventoried Janet’s estate.
+03 Clement Latemore 1816 inventoried Janet’s estate.
+04 William Davis 1820 was rental security on John’s estate; See 1795 Ball, 1818 Rutledge.
+09 Reuben Nash at 1810 estate of John was likely Herod Freeman kin.
+12 William Piles was at 1815 estate of Janet; 1829 with Augusta Maddox at Wm. Gentry.

Document** Cornelius Maddox Descendants of MD to SC
Bk51 Cornelius MADDOX (165x-1706MD) married by 1685 Mary Smallwood, daughter of Col. James Smallwood and Esther “Hester” Nichols. Hester was the documented daughter of John and Ann Nichols! By 1712 Mary remarried and had 3 Taylor children. Charles MD records: 1680, 1681, 1685, 1686, 1688, 1689, 1692, 1693, 1695, 1697, 1698, and 1704.
Benjamin (I)

Bk64 Benjamin MADDOX (I) (169x-1770MD) married 2nd Frances Posey.
**1745 Benjamin was a “half-blood” sibling in the estate of Ann Taylor.
1740 received provisional deed of “Posey’s Chance” adjacent “Athey’s Hopewell.”
1770 Benjamin willed “Posey’s Chance” to son Benjamin II.
Charles MD records: 1733, 1740, 1743, 1745, 1750, 1755, 1767, and 1770.
Benjamin (II)

Bk81 Benjamin MADDOX (II) (1735/9-1819SC) married Mary Woodyard.
**1770 Benjamin II was willed “Posey’s Chance” by father Benjamin I.
**1783 at “Posey’s Chance” adjacent Humphrey Posey at “Athey’s Hopewell” owned by Janet.
**1790 Benjamin and Mary Maddox sold “Posey’s Chance.”
Charles MD records: 1755, 1770, War, 1778, 1782, 1783, 1790.
1790 Abbeville SC Census: Benjamin Maddox II was adjacent Walter Maddox adjacent Ignatius Posey, son of Janet (Luckett) Posey Maddox.

Proven and circumstantial ten sons:
Henley (1761MD-1806SC)
Walter (176x-)
John (-by1810SC)
Benjamin III (1770MD-176xGA)
William (1776MD-1857AL)
Chandler (1780MD-1872AL)
Lawson (1784SC-)
Henry (1785-1839SC)
Thomas (-1805SC)

Bk99 Henley MADDOX (1761MD-1806SC) married Janet Luckett (1749MD-1814SC), widow of Prior Posey.
**1783 widow Janet (Luckett) Posey owned “Athey’s Hopewell” adjacent Benjamin Maddox II.
**1790 Henley Maddox of Ben appeared in Charles County MD alphabetic census.
**1790 Abbeville SC Census was Ignatius Posey [step-son of Henley] adjacent Walter Maddox adjacent Benjamin II Maddox.
**1800 Abbeville SC was Henley Maddox.
**1810 Abbeville SC was widow Janet Maddox near Benjamin Maddox II.
**1806 and 1813 wills of Henley and Janet named the 4 Maddox children.

About the author:
Joyce Odom is a native of Tuscaloosa Alabama and holds advanced degrees in Chemistry and Mathematics from the University of Alabama.  Odom began her research over 55 years ago with a unique interest in history and family.  It is through this passion that she was able to combine the words of sources born in the 1870s and the intact records of the Tuscaloosa courthouse into “Cornelius Maddox Ancestors and Descendants” the first in a series of 10 books.

I have found not royal ancestors but numerous examples of great character and fortitude

  - Joyce S. Odom about “Cornelius Maddox Ancestors and Descendants”